At dawn on 24 February 2022, troops of the Russian Federation invaded Ukraine. The number of military and civilians dead and wounded, the more than 6.2 million Ukrainian refugees (of which more than 5.8 in Europe), the heavy damage to cities, villages and infrastructure, the quantities of weapons already deployed or ready for use, are just some of the figures that make this war one of the most serious in recent decades. The direct and indirect involvement of the planet's main nuclear powers, the presence of mercenary militias, the sending and use of weapons banned by international conventions such as the so-called cluster bombs, the use of armed naval and aerial drones, depleted uranium munitions, sanctions, naval blockades and sabotage, also make it a particularly complex 'hybrid' war, capable of producing unpredictable effects on a large scale and in the long term. However, after a phase of considerable media attention, marked by strong polarisation, the substantial stalemate in military operations, the absence of peace talks and the prospect of an indefinite prolongation of the conflict risk producing a 'normalisation of the war'. Within this framework, we have invited the world of research to propose their own analyses of the ongoing war, on the basis of which we can build possible paths to a just and lasting peace. The authors who have decided to participate in this monographic issue of the journal have offered valuable contributions in this direction, starting from different disciplinary perspectives and ideological positions. This introduction proposes a transversal reading of the different works, in order to highlight the different answers offered to some questions that we consider fundamental: What are the different points of view on the war in Ukraine and is there a way to reach a synthesis and recomposition of them? How has the armed conflict in Ukraine been narrated and what effect has this narrative had on the understanding of the war and the prospects for pacification between the different actors involved? What arguments have been used in the public debate to justify the use of armed force? Why was the belief established among Western governments and in part of public opinion that the main (if not the only) possible support for the invaded Ukraine was military in nature? What are the proximate and what are the deeper causes of the ongoing war? Taking into account the manner in which the war has been conducted, as well as its root causes, what non-violent ways out are feasible? We trust that the papers included in this issue can contribute to a better understanding of the current conflict, while at the same time offering valuable indications for its diplomatic conclusion and the building of a lasting peace, within the framework of a balanced world order.